BICESSE ACCORDS PDF

Download Article Christine Messiant examines why the Bicesse and Lusaka peace agreements failed to end the Angolan conflict. She finds that neither side nor their international backers envisioned the processes as a means to peace but rather to acquiring state power. The Bicesse and Lusaka peace agreements, though supported by the international community, failed to end the conflict in Angola. In examining the inter-play of the interests of domestic forces and the international community, Christine Messiant reasons that neither combatant side or their international backers envisioned the processes as a means to peace but rather as a means to acquiring state power. This was reflected in the failure of the ill-conceived democratisation process at the beginning of the s and the hollow Government of National Unity and Reconciliation. The international community increasing invested the MPLA government with legitimacy and support, helping to bring about the end of the conflict but also further entrenching undemocratic government and state corruption at the expense of the civilian population.

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The armed conflict was the main cause of death of thousands of people, displacement of thousands, hundreds of orphans and the destruction of much of the infrastructure and contraction of a huge foreign debt. The short time of relative peace and tranquility that Angolans enjoyed showed that without war, Angola could give, economically and socially a leap towards development. The Angolan people and the country also needed the understanding and support of the international community to build their future.

According to the Head of State, "in the whole process, thre was also a successful combination of efforts at the international level, which helped mitigate the differences and lay the foundations for a peaceful and openness between all Angolans. The results were disputed and the country relapsed into war again, which left the then representative of the UN secretary-general, Margaret Anstee shocked.

With the new civil war, the number of losses tripled as compared to the toll of previous conflicts, and increased the number of displaced people, aggravated hunger, misery and destruction of infrastructures. However, the Lusaka Agreement did not bring immediate peace, as armed attacks in several locations of the country were recorded until, after further negotiations without the participation of foreign mediation, Angolans who had understood the need for cessation of hostilities, reached a final peace agreement.

Six years after the establishment of peace in the country, Angolans held new election in It was parliamentary election with the participation of 14 political parties and coalitions.

The new Angolan constitution, promulgated in , definitively abolished the presidential elections and replaced it with a single voting for the election of the President of the Republic, the Vice President and the National Assembly Parliament.

Under this new scenario, the head of list of the most voted party automatically becomes the President of the Republic, with the number two becoming the vice president.

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Bicesse Accords

Powerless, the international community tried to negotiate at least a modification of the conditions for the second round of the Presidential vote, to make the playing field less unequal. His messages became increasingly bellicose. The short time of relative peace and tranquility that Angolans enjoyed showed that without war, Angola could give, economically and socially a leap towards development. What Angola really needs is a Marshall Plan for development, infrastructural restoration and to address socio-economic problems. The process of completion of the formation of FAA under the verification and monitoring of the United Nations will guarantee the existence of one single, national and nonpartisan armed forces obeying the sovereign organs of the Republic of Angola. Now forced to rely solely on the diamonds under its control to preserve its military apparatus, and determined not to disarm, UNITA systematically procrastinated and violated an agreement that it deemed unfavourable and hoped to be able to renegotiate on the basis of its continued military strength. The UN, in an attempt to avoid the same omissions and errors in implementation, deployed 7, UN troops to monitor demobilisation in Mozambique, acfords with only unarmed UN military observers in Angola.

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BICESSE ACCORDS PDF

The armed conflict was the main cause of death of thousands of people, displacement of thousands, hundreds of orphans and the destruction of much of the infrastructure and contraction of a huge foreign debt. The short time of relative peace and tranquility that Angolans enjoyed showed that without war, Angola could give, economically and socially a leap towards development. The Angolan people and the country also needed the understanding and support of the international community to build their future. According to the Head of State, "in the whole process, thre was also a successful combination of efforts at the international level, which helped mitigate the differences and lay the foundations for a peaceful and openness between all Angolans.

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