Project yield No. Top 9. Problem management in greenhouse cultivation The troubles which arise in the culture of crops in the greenhouse may be divided into several groups a failure to supply the essential factors for optimum growth such as light, moisture, carbon dioxide and heat in amounts necessary for each individual crop b fertilizer deficiencies c fertilizer excesses d toxic gases e attacks by insects, animals, and allied pests and f susceptibility to fungus, bacteria and virus troubles. Fertilizer deficiencies Symptoms of deficiencies of various fertilizers have been studied over a period of years with plants in greenhouses. Chlorosis This is a term used to denote the loss of normal green colour from the foliage whether it is on the older, more mature leaves or the younger foliage. The entire leaf may be affected, or just areas between the veins, in which case the yellowing is most usually in irregular patches shading into the green colour.

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It is believed to be the oldest flowers under cultivation and ranks number 1 among the cut flower varieties in the international market.

Flowers that are cut from the plant with a long stem and some leaves for ornamental purpose are termed as cut flowers. Cut flowers should have good quality and should be produced in great quantity for a successful business. Among all the cut flowers, a variety of rose called the Dutch rose has high demand in the international markets, but preferably with a high quality. It is quite easy to understand that cultivating excellent quality flowers under open environmental conditions throughout the year is extremely difficult because of irrelevant weather conditions and other threats.

Therefore an economical way of protected cultivation can happen through a naturally ventilated structure called the polyhouse , which has a polyethylene covering material.

Here the plants can be grown all round the year at comparatively lower costs than a greenhouse. A polyhouse has either complete or partial control over the environmental conditions so as to obtain perfect growth and excellent quality. The plants can be grown over the entire year without exploitation from external factors. While cultivating Dutch roses it is highly important to remember that an ideal cut flower should remain fresh in terms of colour and quality for certain duration of time and this greatly depends on the proper management of internal conditions within a polyhouse.

This Polyhouse Dutch Rose cultivation project report describes in detail about the requirements of the plant within a polyhouse and at the end, it details about the cost of production and profits to be expected. Scope and importance of Roses Dutch rose is considered as an important cut flower variety with commercial importance. The total production of Dutch roses in India is approximately around 0. The majority of the produce from the plants is for export purpose, which earns the farmer good returns.

The government has also taken a step forward to support the Dutch rose cultivation by offering subsidies at various levels to encourage this sector. Necessities for cultivation The basic things required for Dutch rose cultivation in a polyhouse are orientation, design and management of polyhouse, soil preparation and sterilization , obtaining the proper planting material, irrigation , cultural practices, control of pests and diseases and fertilization.

All these factors have been discussed below: Polyhouse design for growing Dutch Roses The polyhouse should be oriented in the North-South direction and should have a minimum length of 28 m, width of 20 m and central height of 6 m. Side and top ventilation areas should be around 1 m. The drip irrigation system has to be installed inside the polyhouse for the entire crop area for supplying water regularly and adequately to the plants.

Rose plants perform best in tropical and subtropical climates of India. Soil condition and sterilization in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project Well drained soil with rich organic matter and good oxygen content is considered best for Dutch rose cultivation.

The pH of the soil should be maintained around 5 to 6. The Dutch rose plants can also be cultivated on artificial growing mediums like coco peat, rock wool and pumice. The land inside the polyhouse should be dug to a depth of 30 cm and all weeds, stones, unwanted materials etc. Decomposed FYM, sand, coir pith in the ratio 2: 1: 1 should be added along with 10 kg of urea to the soil.

Soil sterilization is a process of disinfecting the soil before planting the new plants. One method of sterilizing the soil is to supply formalin 10 litres per sq m and cover it with polythene film for 4 days. The land is properly aerated after removing the film and irrigated thoroughly to flush out the residual chemicals. Another way of sterilizing the soil is with hydrogen peroxide and silver.

It is considered to be the most cost efficient and effective way of sterilizing the soil for Dutch rose cultivation. Initially the land is irrigated and 35 ml of hydrogen peroxide is mixed with 1 litre of water and spread over the soil. This should be allowed to settle for hours, after which planting can be done.

It is estimated that 1 sq m of land needs 1 litre of the solution. The soil is made porous by adding gravel sand at the bottom of the bed. The best dimensions of the soil beds could possibly be as such: height of the bed should be around 45 cm, width at the top should be 90 cm and the spacing between the beds should be around 45 cm.

Organic manure application to the bed can increase its texture and nutrition content. Planting in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project Mainly two types of planting material can be used for Dutch rose cultivation, such as: budded plants or top grafted plants. The proper choice of the variety is highly important for good results.

Budded planting material which is 5 to 6 weeks old and free from all contamination can be used for planting. If the farmer chooses to plant two rows on a single soil bed, then the spacing between the plants should be around 18 cm and row spacing should be 30 cm.

N: P: K in the ratio 1: 1: 1 0. During the flowering period the ratio of N: P: K is 2: 1: 4 0. If the plant is nutrient deficient, then proper micro nutrient content should be applied every four days or once every week.

Regular soil analysis once in months can keep the plants healthy. Irrigation in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project During the early stages of plant growth sprinkler irrigation system is used to water the plants for up to four weeks until the root development.

Later, to maintain uniform water distribution, pressure compensating drippers are used such that 2 laterals serve one soil bed. The discharge capacity of the dripper should be 1. Each Dutch rose plant is considered to consume ml of water per day. Drip irrigation should be given before noon.

It is advisable to check the moisture level of the soil before irrigating to avoid excess water around the plants. During summer sprinkler irrigation can be used to maintain the humidity of the area.

To check the water consumption of the plants one can use tensiometer or green finger method. Intercultural practices in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project Cultural practices of Dutch rose plant are followed for getting high production.

Initial flower growing on the plant is pinched about 1 month after planting such that 2 or more eye buds sprout and grow into branches that produce flower buds.

At this stage the main shoot of the mother plant is bent almost close to the bud joint towards the path direction. This is done to initiate bottom break ground shoot. Weak shoots are bent at ground level to form a strong frame for the plant to grow. Bending Leaf area in plants is maintained by bending them and it is highly important for a strong root system. On the bent stem, new growth is restricted and the buds are also removed.

Weak and blind shoots are bent to break the apical dominance of the plant. Bending is mainly done on the 1st and 2nd five pairs of leaves. This process is done throughout the life cycle of the plant and should be avoided in summer so as to prevent mite incidence. An important precaution while bending the stems is that the leaves should not touch the soil and the stem should not break. Removing these secondary buds is called disbudding.

The buds should not be removed immediately as they appear or should not be left to be removed later. The exact time of the removal is when the bud shows sight color and attains the size of a pea.

Generally buds on the thin and weak stem are removed. This method helps develop quality buds and flowers because it avoids the development of auxiliary bud. These shoots are not cut, but are removed from the union. Maintenance of beds in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project While watering the plants or due to hoeing and weeding, the fertile soil of the raised beds can slip to the pathway. This can be corrected by adding extra soil to the beds or by manually shifting the soil to the beds from the pathway.

Weeding and aeration in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project Weeding hook is used to remove all the unwanted algae on the soil layer. This helps in aerating the soil as well, but it should be done with care so as not to damage the roots of the rose plants. Bud caps When buds start appearing on the plant, bud caps are placed over them to increase its size and shape it well.

This is a condition in which the stem of the plant starts drying towards the bottom from the place of the cut. These diebacks should be removed from the plants and the secateurs should be disinfected before harvest. The 5th five pair leaf should undergo ground shoot cutting such that one or two eye buds sprout from the lower leaves. Later the 2nd and 3rd five pair leaves should be harvested. Generally the thick stems are cut first to develop strong shoots.

Harvesting of roses is done once during low temperatures, but if the temperatures are high a second harvest in the late afternoon is recommended. Harvesting needs skilled labour and is probably started after weeks from planting. The estimated average yield of Dutch roses is about flowers per sq m. The roses should be placed in a bucket containing 10 liters of clean, chlorinated water or water mixed with preservatives like Florissant and RVB chisel.

The vase life of the cut flower depends greatly on its variety and is approximately days. Anybody who is interested in starting a polyhouse Dutch rose farming business has to understand the investment structure.

The estimation here is shown in a small polyhouse area of size sq m i. One-fourth of an acre. These values should be considered for reference only. The charges may vary depending on the unit size and material availability in the area.

Cost of constructing polyhouse per sq m: Rs Electricity usage: 3 units per day. Rate of labour per day: Rs Materials required fixed capital Constructing a polyhouse on sq m includes glazing material, shade net, GI pipe structure 7,56,


Carnation Cultivation Guide (2020)

Hence the crop needs support while growing. Good support material is metallic wire woven with nylon mesh. At every two meters the wire should be supported with poles. The poles at both the ends of bed should be strong.


Carnation Cultivation in Greenhouse

WhatsApp Polyhouse farming is slowly gaining popularity in India. A farmer can make huge profit from polyhouse farming. What is a polyhouse? Polyhouse or a greenhouse is a house or a structure made of translucent material like glass or polyethylene where the plants grow and develop under controlled climatic conditions. The size of structure can differ from small shacks to big-size buildings as per the need. Above all, a greenhouse is a glass house whose interiors become warm when exposed to sunbeams as the house stops the greenhouse gas to leave. So when it is cold outside, the temperature inside is survival friendly and warm for the plants.

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