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Igor Manzura Republic of Moldova - Prof. Romstorfer, Suceava Stefan cel Mare street - 33, Suceava - phone: ; fax: mail: contact muzeulbucovinei. Part 4.
The plastic art. Chapter 2. Ways of contextualisation for anthropomorphic Valeska Becker 29 and zoomorphic figurines Chapter 3. Cast in clay. Linearbandkeramik figurines and Daniela Hofmann 47 society Chapter 4. Anthropomorphic plastic art of Trypillia Natalia Burdo culture: dialectic of similarities and differences Chapter Some considerations on a certain type of Gheorghe Dumitroaia, Constantin anthropomorphic idol of the Precucuteni culture Preoteasa, Ciprian — Dorin Nicola Chapter Contributions to the knowledge of the Nicolae Ursulescu, Dumitru Boghian, anthropomorphic plastic art of the Precucuteni culture.
We also explore two additional research questions: 1 what is the spatial distribution of figurines on the site? Our results suggest that the hypothesis of association between context and fragmentation is supported by the Divostin data. The pattern of association is similar to the pattern at the nearby Late Neolithic site of Selevac as discovered by previous research.
Results of the spatial analysis suggest that figurine fragments cluster around houses and that there is some evidence that formally similar figurines tend to come from the same area. Keywords anthropomorphic figurines; fragmentation; Neolithic; Central Balkans; Divostin. Introduction The analysis of fragmentation and context is important for understanding the use of prehistoric figurines Biehl ; Lesure ; Ucko , especially in the light of recent theories and hypotheses regarding fragmentation and meaning of the Neolithic and Copper Age material culture in Southeast Europe Chapman ; Chapman and Gaydarska There is a growing number of case studies in which different aspects of fragmentation and context of Neolithic and Copper Age figurines from Southeast Europe are investigated e.
We are interested to explore whether the pattern of association discovered in Selevac will be found in Divostin as well. If both sites have the same pattern, this will strengthen the reality of the pattern itself, so we can at least be certain that it has cultural or, at least, behavioral significance.
Our main hypothesis is that there will be a correlation between context and fragmentation in Divostin and that the pattern of association will be similar to the one found in Selevac.
In addition to testing this hypothesis, we also address two research questions related to figurine use and discard : 1 How are figurines distributed in space? Are there concentrations of figurine fragments or are they uniformly distributed on the site? There are many factors which may cause such correlation, and some of them may be relevant for understanding the use and function of figurines.
The presence or absence of a pattern does not automatically lead to interpretation, as the number of possible scenarios is greater than possible patterns. More theoretical and methodological work is needed before we can use the aspects of these patterns not just their presence or absence for 1. On the other hand, if some of the houses are not contemporary, we could have the same pattern — because spatial variation would track chronological variation of figurine form and decoration.
These are just two out of many possibilities when it comes to dynamics behind the patterns, but many more scenarios can be conjectured. For these reasons, we limit ourselves only to exploratory analysis in this paper to see whether spatial patterns of formal variability in figurines exist in the Late Neolithic Divostin. Data and methods Archaeology of Divostin The site of Divostin is situated in central Serbia in the vicinity of the town Kragujevac. The site was discovered in , during the field survey conducted by the Archaeological Institute, Belgrade.
The excavations took place between and Divostin I is an Early Neolithic settlement. The Late Neolithic settlement overlaid the Early Neolithic horizon, and it consisted of above-ground buildings. Subphase IIa includes five houses 7 — 2 Their sizes varied from 43 to m , and were all poorly preserved. Houses 12 — 23, together with all 10 pits, belong to the Divostin IIb subphase. Eight of them were partially excavated within 5x5 m spatial units, marked by numbers.
Some of these units were subdivided into 2. For the purposes of this paper excavated trenches2 were arbitrarily labeled as shown in fig. There are three kinds of contexts that we can distinguish between in Divostin II settlement: houses, pits and cultural layer. When houses are in question, only figurines from closed contexts found on house floors sealed by house rubble are assigned to the house context. In the excavated area of Divostin a total of anthropomorphic and zoomorphic figurines were found, of which belong to the Late Neolithic Divostin II phase Letica All of them were modeled from well purified clay, and polished before firing.
The author notes that it is characteristic that all figurines, both anthropomorphic and zoomorphic, are heavily fragmented Letica In this paper, we consider only anthropomorphic figurines and we use information and drawings published in Letica as a source from which we generate data for the analysis.
Recording fragmentation The body of the figurine was divided into 7 parts: head, chest, abdomen, lower part, right hand, left hand and undetermined hand this category includes the cases where it was not possible to determine whether the right or the left hand is present. A total of 21 categories were created, as shown in Table 1.
In the database, the presence of each element was marked with number 1, and the absence with 0, so that series of seven numbers was obtained for every specimen recorded depending on the combination of present and absent parts. For instance, a figurine fragment with chest, abdomen and left hand preserved had a code , whereas a complete figurine would be coded as fig. In this way, any instance of fragmentation can be recorded without the need to produce fixed typology of fragmentation.
This kind of fragmentation recording facilitates inter-assemblage comparisons. Measuring selected stylistic attributes of figurines 2. Excavation trench for House 23 is not on the plan so we arbitrarily labeled it as Trench 6. Figurine eyes were classified into nominal categories — eye shape types fig.
Face shape was measured using a rather simple and crude morphometric method by taking measurements along the vertical axis of face symmetry Read In total, 8 measurements of the distances from the vertical face axis to the outline of the face were, along with the overall height of the face fig.
In total, 28 figurine face shapes were recorded in this way. These measurements were based on figurine drawings in Letica Each outline measurement was divided with the face height in order to remove the variation related to figurine size, so each standardized measure is a ratio which captures an aspect of the figurine face shape see also Shennan Taken together, these measurements quantify the information about the face shape.
Regarding the first research question, the spatial distribution of figurine fragments was explored by plotting the number of figurines per 5x5m excavation square unit and by visual inspection of the results.
The spatial affiliation of figurine fragments was assigned in two ways which differ in the degree of spatial resolution: 1 Figurines were affiliated to the nearest Divostin IIb house or to House 10 in the case of Sector D 2 Figurines were affiliated to the excavation trench they come from the trenches were arbitrarily labeled by the authors, see fig.
Only figurines found in houses can be unambiguously affiliated with the particular house. However, the sample of figurines coming only from houses would be too small for a meaningful statistical analysis. Given the fact that there is a continuity of building activity in almost all trenches Divostin IIb house horizon built over Divostin IIa house horizon , we assume that figurines found in one area e. This is the rationale for including all figurines fragments, and not just those which were found strictly in houses, into the analysis.
As described above, we "measured" two aspects of figurine formal characteristics: face shape and eye shape. Principal Components Analysis PCA was performed on a standardized set of measures in order to reduce the dimensionality of the morphometric space see Shennan Figurines face were plotted in a two dimensional space defined by the first two PCA axes and each figurine face was coded for its spatial affiliation.
Distances in the PCA space can be interpreted as differences or similarities in face shapes: for example, figurines which are close in the PCA plot have similar face shapes. If figurines which are close in physical space are also similar in their face shapes, we expect to see specimens affiliated with the same house or trench to form clusters in a two-dimensional face shape space defined by the first two principal components.
Statistical significance of the correlation between eye shapes and spatial affiliation of figurines as defined above was determined by the chi squared test based on a contingency table in which eye shape and spatial affiliation were cross-tabbed. The relations of eye shape types and spatial units were visualized using the Correspondence Analysis. The inspection of adjusted standardized residuals suggest that complete or near complete missing one arm figurines are significantly associated with houses, whereas upper parts of figurines e.
The only exception to this pattern is a figurine with all body parts present except the head fragmentation code which was found in a pit. The visual inspection of the figurine fragments distribution map suggests that figurine fragments are concentrated around Divostin IIb houses fig.
Trenches without Divostin IIb houses have a relatively small number of figurines, or no figurines at all. Table 2 shows the distribution of eye shape types across Trenches. The likelihood-ratio chi squared test suggest that there is a statistically significant association at the 0. The pattern of association is presented in the CA plot fig.
Some of the associations are statistically significant as evidenced by the adjusted standardized residuals. For example, figurines with no eyes are strongly associated with the Trench 3, figurines with tear shaped eyes Type 4 are associated with the Trench 4, and figurines with eye shape type 9 are associated with the Trench 6.
Table 3 shows the distribution of eye shape types across areas associated with Divostin IIb houses. At this higher resolution we see that it is actually House 15 which is associated with figurines with no eyes Type 0 , and that House 23 is associated with figurine eye shape type 9.
Likewise, type 3 is associated with house Figurines are marked for the trench from which they come from. Only some figurines from trench 6 4 out of 6 figurines from House 23 and trench 1 cluster tightly together have similar face shapes but no clear-cut division between trenches is apparent. Again, 4 figurines from House 23 and 4 figurines affiliated with House 10 are close, but others are more dispersed in the face shape space defined by the PCA axes.
Discussion The hypothesis of association between context and fragmentation is supported by the Divostin data. We could interpret the association of upper figurine halves with pits as yet another example of structured deposition in the South Eastern European Neolithic Chapman ; Chapman, Gaydarska However, saying that something is an example of structured deposition does not mean that we understand its meaning.
Therefore, the meaning of this correlation remains elusive. We do have the pattern, we have a general theoretical framework, the fragmentation theory Chapman ; Chapman, Gaydarska , but we still do not know what the meaning of such pattern is: how were the figurines used, what did they represent?
Regarding complete figurines associated with houses, the most likely explanation is that they were a part of de facto refuse or the living inventory of the house, but this still does not tell us what they were used for.
But what about the upper parts of figurines? Why do we find them in pits more than expected by chance? An alternative explanation for the patterns found in Divostin and Selevac can also be offered which does not necessarily have to be in contradiction with the structured deposition 94 Anthropomorphism and symbolic behaviour What if the patterns of association found in Divostin and Selevac only reflect the behavioral sequence where some of the steps in that sequence have nothing to do with the meaning and use of figurines?
Divostin and the Neolithic of central Serbia
These forests were preserved until the early 19th century; they are mentioned in literature and tradition. When Alphonse de Lamartine took a trip to Serbia , he described the forests as "like he was in the middle of the North American forests". In the Jasenica villages a tradition was maintained "that everywhere there were empty forests, and settlers called relatives to come and occupy the land how much they want Notable Neolithic sites include Grivac and Kusovac in the west, Divostin in the middle, and Dobrovodica and Rajac in the east. It is unclear where the exact border with the Bulgarian Khanate went in the 10th century. Prince Zaharija is known to have united several Slavic tribes along the common border to rebel against Bulgaria in the s. After the fall of the Despotate, opportunities changed.
DIVOSTIN AND THE NEOLITHIC OF CENTRAL SERBIA PDF
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Raw material studies of West Central Serbia
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