See how this article appeared when it was originally published on NYTimes. Edward Glaeser, a Harvard professor of economics, has spent several decades investigating the role cities play in fostering human achievement. Glaeser takes us on a world tour of urban economics, collecting passport stamps in Athens, London, Tokyo, Bangalore, Kinshasa, Houston, Boston, Singapore and Vancouver. Along the way, he explains how urban density contributed to the birth of restaurants, why supermarket check-out clerks demonstrate the competitive advantage such density confers and how the birth of Def Jam Records illustrates the way cities spur artistic innovation.
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Ludwig Glaeser received a degree in architecture from the Darmstadt University of Technology and a Ph. He would go on to be curator of the Department of Architecture and Design in Glaeser described how his father supported new construction and change if it met aesthetic standards. According to Glaeser, his father also "disliked dreary postwar apartment buildings and detested ugly suburban communities", but Glaeser, himself found much to admire in sprawl in so far as it facilitates "the ability of people to live as they choose".
She earned an M. He remembers her teaching him micro-economics lessons, such as marginal cost price theory. He advocates for higher buildings in cities while Jacobs deplored the s and s public housing projects inspired by Le Corbusier.
The austere, dehumanizing New York high rises eventually became the "projects" straying far from their original intent.
Glaeser grew up in a high rise and believes that higher buildings provide more affordable housing. He calls for elimination or lessening of height limitation restrictions, preservationist statutes and other zoning laws.
In particular, his work examining the historical evolution of economic hubs like Boston and New York City has had major influence on both economics and urban geography.
Glaeser also has written on a variety of other topics, ranging from social economics to the economics of religion , from both contemporary and historical perspectives. His work has earned the admiration of a number of prominent economists. No one had come up with some new ways to look at cities. Glaeser develops models using these tools and then evaluates them with real world data, so as to verify their applicability. A number of his papers in applied economics are co-written with his Harvard colleague, Andrei Shleifer.
In , Glaeser began writing a regular column for the New York Sun. He writes a monthly column for The Boston Globe. Although his most recent book, Triumph of the City ,  celebrates the city, he moved with his wife and children to the suburbs around because of "home interest deduction, highway infrastructure and local school systems".
In early work, he found that over decades, industrial diversity contributes more to economic growth than specialization, which contrasts with work by other urban economists like Vernon Henderson of Brown University. He has published influential studies on inequality. His work with David Cutler of Harvard identified harmful effects of segregation on black youth in terms of wages, joblessness, education attainment, and likelihood of teen pregnancy.
They found that the effect of segregation was so harmful to blacks that if black youth lived in perfectly integrated metropolitan areas, their success would be no different from white youth on three of four measures and only slightly different on the fourth. Cities attract poor people. They attract poor people because they deliver things that people need most of all—economic opportunity.
Differing attitudes towards those less fortunate partially explain differences in the redistribution of income from rich to poor. But they conclude that racial diversity in the United States, with the dominant group being white and the poor mainly non-white, led to resistance to reduce inequality in the United States through redistribution.
Surprisingly the United States political structures are centuries old and remain much more conservative than their European counterparts as the latter have undergone much political change. For example, he and colleague Denise DiPasquale found that homeowners are more engaged citizens than renters.
In recent years, Glaeser has argued that human capital explains much of the variation in urban and metropolitan level prosperity. Compounded with strict zoning laws the supply of new housing in these cities was seriously disrupted. Real estate markets were thus unable to accommodate increases in demand, and housing prices skyrocketed. Glaeser also points to the experience of states such as Arizona and Texas , which experienced tremendous growth in demand for real estate during the same period but, because of looser regulations and the comparative ease of obtaining new building permits, did not witness abnormal increases in housing prices.
Housing policy makers, however, need to recognize that housing affordability differs from region to region and affects classes differently. Public policies should reflect those differences. The middle class confront affordability issues that could be resolved by allowing for more new home constructions by removing zoning restrictions at the municipal level.
Glaeser and Gyourko recommend direct income transfers for low income families to resolve their specific housing needs rather than government interference in the housing market itself.
He argued that this kept Houston prices flat while elsewhere they escalated. The increase in food consumption is itself the result of technological innovations which made it possible for food to be mass prepared far from the point of consumption, and consumed with lower time costs of preparation and cleaning. Price changes are normally beneficial, but may not be if people have self-control problems.
Triumph of the City
Ludwig Glaeser received a degree in architecture from the Darmstadt University of Technology and a Ph. He would go on to be curator of the Department of Architecture and Design in Glaeser described how his father supported new construction and change if it met aesthetic standards. According to Glaeser, his father also "disliked dreary postwar apartment buildings and detested ugly suburban communities", but Glaeser, himself found much to admire in sprawl in so far as it facilitates "the ability of people to live as they choose". She earned an M.
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There is lots more in this wonderful book, which overall makes me much more optimistic about the ability of our increasingly urbanized world to change and adapt. Triumph of the City Manhattan Institute For best viewing experience, please consider upgrading to the latest version. This controversial factoid has kicked around for a while. Inspired by Your Browsing History. In the post war years New York increasingly restricted development and tried to make up for the lack of private supply with rent control and public housing.