A micro-cavity fluidic dye laser. Google Scholar 34 Kou, Q. Collinear dual-color laser emission from a microfluidic dye laser. Google Scholar 35 Gersborg-Hansen, M. A coupled cavity micro-fluidic dye ring laser.
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In this context, we demonstrate the optofluidic logic operations with interfacial piezophototronic effect to promote multiple operations of electronic analogues. We report an optofluidic Y-channeled logic device with tunable metal-semiconductor-metal interfaces through mechanically induced strain elements.
The exhibited strategy in optofluidic systems implemented with piezophototronic concept enables direct-on chip working of OR and AND logic with switchable photocurrent under identical analyte. Implementation of smart, interactive optofluidic tools for human—machine-interfaced next-generation applications demands an active and adaptable circuit interfaced in electromechanical stimuli with the capability of direct electrical information encoded in logic units 11 , 12 , 13 , Prominent control of semiconductor-based photonic and electronic logic gates has activated the most effective way of utilizing the supremacy of electromechanical—optofluidic integrations Besides, it requires a wide range of fluidic operands making the system challenging to configure multiple logic gates together using the same analyte fluid With induced piezoelectric polarization at semiconductor—metal interfaces, we exhibit optofluidic binary computation of the OR gate and its intrinsic configuration to the logic AND.
The principal interfacing of optofluidics with piezophototronic devices is not an easy task and so far lacks reports with proof-of-mechanism experiments. Hence, we report the new insight of synergetic tailoring in optofluidic logic devices to explore dual-modulated switching principles facilitated through effective control of the piezophototronic effect.
We implemented the MSM interfacial Y-channel optofluidic logic gate using in situ-grown zinc oxide nanorods ZnO NR in the PVDF substrate with three-way coupling among piezoelectric, semiconductor, and photoexcitation properties.
The integration of optofluidics with the piezoelectric system using a multisource-responsive material enables dual-logic functionality on a single platform providing adaptable switches for interactive optoelectronics. Supplementary Figs. Further, Fig. When the UV-D:D state is activated, the photocurrent steadily increases. The small drop observed between each switching condition is expected due to the disturbances experienced by the device while controlling the transfusion set roller to pass the fluids into the channels, and interchanging the channels based on input conditions.
The truth table in Fig. The results ensure the ideal functioning of the Y-OF device as the Boolean operator OR gate based on optofluidic tuning using light—chemical sensing mechanisms. Strain-induced intrinsic reconfiguration to logic AND To meet the present demands in the implementation of multiple logic devices with the same analyte fluids , we demonstrated the fabricated Y-OF to perform the AND functionality with no further changes in the optical and fluidic parameters enabled through integration of the piezophototronic concept 26 , The piezocharges get accumulated at the MSM interfaces by which the barrier height increases.
The interfacial gating mechanism of strain-induced behavior is illustrated schematically in Supplementary Fig. Real-time AND gate performance was demonstrated through time-dependent switching analysis I—t as shown in Fig. The results are summarized in the truth table of Fig. The systematic analysis illustrates the behavior of the piezophototronic effect to intrinsically reconfigure OR to the AND gate by compiled means of light—fluid—strain-induced mechanisms.
Further, the reliability of the device performance is evaluated through repeatability studies Supplementary Figs. This assures the stability and reusability of the device. Besides, to validate the generation of piezoelectric potentials, we carried out piezoelectrical analysis by using an electrometer Supplementary Fig. The experimental sensing mechanism governing the OR logic scheme is illustrated in Fig. With decanol, the photocurrent is high due to low diffusivity of decanol over the ZnO NR surface.
Further, the dipole moment 1. With increased chain length and the less pronounced dipole effect between decanol and ZnO NR, the photocurrent at UV-D:D is high due to reduced positive charges which had altered the surface charge distribution of ZnO NR. The mixture of dual solvent is expected to exist in the form where long-chained decanol with higher density strongly encapsulates ethanol with cross-linked intermolecular dipoles dipole—dipole coupling.
The effectiveness of the dipole moment decreases with the cross-linking effect which causes fewer chances of the exciton—dipole interaction between ZnO NR and ethanol Therefore, we allow effective conduction of photogenerated charge carriers at the MSM interfaces.
Ethanol with a lone pair of electrons tends to couple effectively with the excitons facilitating the changes in the ZnO surface charge distributions, thereby consequently increasing the MSM band bending. This shifts the photocurrent toward a lower value as an indication of interacted molecular dipoles and reduces negative surface charges as a result of surface-state effects 33 , Also, the liquid ethanol forms an effective shielding layer over the ZnO NR Hence, a lowered photocurrent using ethanol is observed as a systematic contribution from exciton—dipole coupling dipole moment, 1.
The demonstrated cascaded optofluidic logic device with the piezophototronic switching concept by using Y-OF provides a versatile and significant mechanism to perform multiple logic functions with intelligent, adaptable interactions optical—chemical—strain in shaping the electronic and biomedical device properties Discussion Our study on Y-OF presents a flexible framework to perform binary computations with an integrated piezophototronic mechanism controlling the optofluidic switching of logic gates PPOF.
The intrinsic reconfiguration demonstrates a promising potential featuring the smart signal-responsive systems sophisticating the designing of futuristic bio molecular computers, binary-operating chemical biosensors, electrochemical transducers to switch biofuel cells, addressable logic memory units, modeling of on-chip optical tweezers, and actuations, thus giving rise to programmable logic-triggered therapeutic and diagnostic detection tools.
Two copper Cu wires are attached on each Au electrode using silver Ag paste. This facilitates the fluids passing through the channels to have direct interaction with ZnO NR. Experimental setup We developed a structure to smooth the path of experimental approaches toward piezophototronic-tuned optofluidic logic gates Fig.
The outlet end of the Y-OF device is placed firmly onto a stand attached to the base of the clamp. Flexible tubes are used as a support to connect the needles with the channels so that the Y-OF device can bend without restriction. Further, an optical fiber from a LED source meter is fixed near the device area.
The experiment is carried out in the presence of a black box which excludes the environmental light influencing the performance of Y-OF. The piezoelectric performances were analyzed by using a high-impedance electrometer Keithley To estimate the penetration depth of light in the fluids of the UV-Vis spectrophotometer Lambda25, PerkinElmer was employed, respectively.
Data availability The authors declare that the data supporting the findings of this study are available within the article and its Supplementary Information files.
All the other data supporting the findings of this study within the article are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. References 1. Monat, C. Integrated optofluidics: a new river of light.
Photonics 1, —
Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light
For both cases, the core fluid was dyed with the fluorescent dye Rhodamine B. For the Stokes flow case, a slight widening of the core fluid is seen downstream due to diffusion of the fluorescent dye into the sheath fluid. Significant widening of the core fluid is seen for the inertial flow case. A photomask with a thin slit was used to polymerize a particle at P6 for a side-pillar channel and P7 for the center-pillar channel. The cross sectional shape of the particles revealed the flow cross sectional shape. Ten particles are simultaneously polymerized with a single UV exposure step, and this is repeated with a 10 second cycle time. Here, we present a novel method called optofluidic fabrication for the generation of complex 3D-shaped polymer particles based on two coupled processes: inertial flow shaping and ultraviolet UV light polymerization.
Vusida Optical sensors based on active microcavities. With current research only in its infancy, many Chaotic mixer for microchannels. However, microflows exhibit characteristic behaviours chemistry A new river of light. By have been explored.