NON HODGKIN LENFOMA PDF

Researchers have found that non-Hodgkin lymphoma NHL is linked with a number of risk factors , but the cause of most lymphomas is not known. This is complicated by the fact that lymphomas are actually a diverse group of cancers. Changes in genes Scientists have made a lot of progress in understanding how certain changes in DNA can cause normal lymphocytes to become lymphoma cells. DNA is the chemical in our cells that makes up our genes, which control how our cells function.

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Researchers have found that non-Hodgkin lymphoma NHL is linked with a number of risk factors , but the cause of most lymphomas is not known. This is complicated by the fact that lymphomas are actually a diverse group of cancers. Changes in genes Scientists have made a lot of progress in understanding how certain changes in DNA can cause normal lymphocytes to become lymphoma cells. DNA is the chemical in our cells that makes up our genes, which control how our cells function.

We look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than just how we look. Some genes control when cells grow, divide, and die: Genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are called oncogenes.

Genes that help keep cell division under control or make cells die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes. Cancers can be caused by DNA mutations changes that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes. Some people inherit DNA mutations from a parent that increase their risk for some types of cancer. Gene changes related to NHL are usually acquired during life, rather than being inherited.

Acquired gene changes can result from exposure to radiation, cancer-causing chemicals, or infections, but often these changes occur for no apparent reason. They seem to happen more often as we age, which might help explain why most lymphomas are seen in older people. Some of the gene changes that lead to certain types of lymphoma are now known. For example, in follicular lymphoma, the cells often have an exchange of DNA known as a translocation between chromosomes 14 and 18, which turns on the BCL-2 oncogene.

Chromosomes are long strands of DNA in each cell. This oncogene stops the cell from dying at the right time, which can lead to lymphoma.

Scientists are learning much about the exact gene changes involved in the different types of NHL. While researchers are beginning to understand some of the gene changes that can lead to NHL, they still do not know why many of these gene changes develop, especially in people with no apparent risk factors.

People with certain autoimmune diseases where the immune system constantly attacks a certain part of the body have an increased risk of lymphoma.

People with certain chronic infections are also at increased risk, probably because the immune system is constantly making new lymphocytes to fight the infection, which increases the chances for mistakes in their DNA.

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Familial component[ edit ] Familial lymphoid cancer is rare. The familial risk of lymphoma is elevated for multiple lymphoma subtypes, suggesting a shared genetic cause. However, a family history of a specific subtype is most strongly associated with risk for that subtype, indicating that these genetic factors are subtype-specific. Genome-wide association studies GWAS have successfully identified 67 single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs from 41 loci , most of which are subtype specific. Additionally, other retroviruses such as HTLV may be spread by the same mechanisms that spread HIV , leading to an increased rate of co-infection.

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Non Hodgkin Lenfoma (NHL) Teşhisi ve Tedavi Yöntemleri

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